Green Fiend Superfood Smoothie


Organic wheatgrass powder does not only add taste to your smoothie, but it also makes the mixture more consistent. Moreover, it is also packed with the wealth of antioxidants, vitamins, anti-inflammatory agents, minerals and alkalizing chlorophyll.

Therefore, this smoothie boosts your cellular function, nourishes the immune system of your body, and it also plays a pivotal role in neutralizing the acids in your body while purifying the blood.

Serves: 2


  • 2 tablespoons of lime juice (fresh)
  • A green tea bad
  • A banana (medium)
  • Wheatgrass powder (2 teaspoons)
  • A cup of boiled water
  • A tablespoon of hemp protein powder
  • Baby spinach (a cup of 44g)
  • Half a cup apple juice (unfiltered)
  • Sea salt (optional, just a pinch of it)
  • Half a teaspoon probiotic powder (again, it is optional)
  • 3 tablespoons of chia seed powder
  • Pineapple (frozen, 2 cups)


  • Immerse the teabag in boiling water and leave it for about a minute
  • Allow the mixture to cool
  • Now toss in the entire list of ingredients together with the tea bag into a blender
  • Keep it on ‘high’ setting and blast for roughly 45 seconds; make sure that the mixture is smooth

Orange Wheatgrass Smoothie


This smoothie is rich in folate, vitamin C, manganese and vitamin A.

A major chunk of credit goes to organic wheat powder that brings all these nutritional benefits to this great drink and makes the overall consistency creamy as well.

Well, since organic wheat grass offers a strong green flavor, orange and banana are also there in the recipe to neutralize the strong taste while offering a multitude of health benefits.

It hardly takes 5-7 minutes to prepare so you can prepare this smoothie pretty easily and quickly on daily basis.


Serves: 1-2 people


  • Half a cup ice
  • Half a cup milk sub
  • 2 tangerines or an orange
  • One-fourth of a teaspoon wheatgrass powder
  • One-fourth of a cup coconut water, or plain water
  • Frozen banana (half)


  • Toss the list of ingredients in your blender and blast it on ‘high’ setting until the consistency is thick and smooth
  • If you are using Blendtec, just hit the ‘whole juice’ setting or just blend it on medium-high speed for roughly a minute
  • If you are using Vitamix, then it is suggested to start at speed 1. Now turn it on and gradually increase it to variable speed 10. Keep blending until the mixture is consistent.

Chia Seeds FAQs



Q .What are Chia Seeds?

A .Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), is a dietary and medicinal plant species used since the ancient times by the Aztec and Mayan. Its product is a dry indehiscent fruit often called a seed. However, since the past few decades, there has been an increased diffusion and attention of the seeds of the chia plant for their immense health benefits and the uses in cooking. The seeds are tiny (1mm up to 2mm), oval-shaped, and maybe white, black, grey or even brown if they are immature seeds.

Q .What are the Nutritional Facts of Chia Seeds?

A .Chia seeds provide about 10 grams of fiber per ounce ( almost  two tablespoons).This is evidently reinforced by the USDA data which shows that the fiber content of chia seeds are 34.4 grams per every 100 grams or 10 grams. Chia seeds contain all the essential amino acids in the right proportions and significant minerals including zinc, boron, iron, calcium, niacin, magnesium, manganese and niacin. Each 2 tablespoon of Chia seeds contains more than 10 percent of the daily recommended value for copper, niacin, calcium and iron and more than 20 percent for manganese, phosphorus, boron, selenium, and magnesium.

Chia seeds are an excellent source of the healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids, the Omega 3 fatty acids. Since Chia is a plant, it contains high amounts of the alpha-linolenic acid which are derived from vegetable oils, seeds and nuts. Chia seeds have approximately 25 to 35 % oil by weight, with a tablespoon of Chia seeds providing approximately 2.5 grams of the alpha-linolenic acid.

Chia seeds provide almost 2 grams of protein per tablespoon,( 4% of the daily recommended intake based on a 2,000 calorie diet plan).Chia has 18 amino acids, including all the essential amino acids which are easily digestible and assimilated into the body.

Chia seeds are rich in antioxidants such as the quercetin, caffeic acid, flavonols, chlorogenic acid and myricetin.


In fact, Chia seeds provide;

  • 2 to 3 times the calcium of milk (more than a cup of low-fat milk, which provides 310 mg calcium)
  • 8 times the Omega 3 in Salmon
  • 2 times more iron than raw spinach
  • 20 percent total protein by weight
  • Vitamins B, D, and E
  • More antioxidants than the blueberries.
  • More digestible protein than soy, peas, and beans.
  1. What are the benefits of Chia Seed?

A .Chia seeds contain all the essential nutrients necessary for optimal growths and development such as antioxidants, proteins, omega- 3 fatty acids, minerals such as copper, boron, iron, calcium, niacin, magnesium, manganese and niacin, and vitamins at a right proportion. Below are some of its numerous benefits:

  • A tablespoon of chia seeds provides 5 grams of fiber. The soluble fiber, predominantly found in Chia seeds easily dissolves in water and passes through the digestive systems slowly as compared to the insoluble fiber. The soluble fiber found in Chia seeds helps to lower the LDL cholesterols (bad) and increases the HDL (good) cholesterol levels thus protecting a person from various cardiovascular conditions such as high blood pressure and atherosclerosis.  The Fiber also helps lower your risks for high cholesterol, heart diseases, high blood sugar levels and constipation.
  • Being an oilseed, Chia seeds are rich in calories with 100g of the seeds providing almost 380 calories. Most of its calories are derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids (Omega 6 and Omega 3).
  • Chia seeds contain beneficial triglycerides which are long-chain in the right proportions which help to reduce the buildup of cholesterol on the arterial walls.
  • Chia seeds are an excellent source of the omega-3 fatty acids. The essential Omega 3 fatty acid is an alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Alpha-linolenic acids have anti-inflammatory actions that help fight diseases such as cancers, blood pressure, and heart diseases, reduce inflammations, guarding against depression and Alzheimer’s diseases and possibly diminish symptoms of any autoimmune disorders The Omega-3 fatty acids also play a significant role in brain functions and normal growth and developments.
  • The omega 3 fatty acids in Chia seeds helps our bodies to absorb and emulsify fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K., For instance, they (omega 3) cooperate with Vitamin D to ensure that calcium is bioavailable to the tissues. In addition to that, Omega 3 is significant for normal glandular activities especially of the thyroid and adrenal glands.
  • Chia is also a good source of antioxidants such as the quercetin, caffeic acid, flavonols, chlorogenic acid and myricetin which functions to provide protection against the cell damages as a result of oxidation and free radicals. Antioxidants help prevent inflammations and occurrence of diseases such as cancer, arthritis etc.
  • Chia seeds will help soothe your digestive system due to its hydrophilic nature .The outer coat of the seed has a non-starch polysaccharides mucilage that swells up severally, making the chia seed acquire gel-like consistency thus helps in smoothing digestion and bowel movements. Its hydrophilic nature also aids in the digestion of food that causes pains due to acid reflux.chia3
  • Its gluten free property makes it safe for consumption for people suffering from celiac disease (gluten sensitivity), carbohydrate intolerance, Crohn’s Disease, hypoglycemia, Celiac Disease, or even for any person wishing to avoid any gluten-containing cereals and grains like barley, corn, and wheat.
  • According to com, Chia seeds are a low glycemic index food with a fullness factor of 2.8. Foods low in glycemic index ensure that there is effective regulation of the blood glucose levels, thus substitution of chia with other cereals such as rice can benefit people with diabetes.
  • Chia seeds also stabilize the blood sugars. Chia’s soluble fibers exert a stabilizing effect on the blood glucose levels regulating the rates at which starch (Complex carbohydrates) are digested and assimilated in the human body. Thus, this creates a steady and stable blood sugar levels. The presence of high extents of fiber helps in diabetes mellitus by slowing down the rate of digestion and releasing of glucose. It also increases the peristaltic movements of the intestine while reducing the plasma cholesterol level.
  • Chia seeds are excellent sources of essential minerals, particularly calcium, iron, phosphorus, selenium, boron, copper, magnesium, and These minerals play vital roles in mineralization of bones, production of red blood cells, cardiac regulation, enzyme synthesis, and skeletal and muscle activities . Niacin helps your body turn the food into energy and your body requires copper and iron for forming the red blood cells. Manganese, calcium, boron, and phosphorus are for strong bones, while the magnesium is necessary during the formation of the DNA structure. Selenium acts as an antioxidant thus helping in the prevention of oxidation and damaging of the cells.
  • Chia seeds aids in weight loss. Chia seeds act as an appetite They make you feel full since they absorb ten times their weight in water when forming a bulky gel. Besides that, the gel from chia which is formed in the stomach creates a physical barrier between the carbohydrates and digestive enzymes which break them, thus slowing down the conversion of carbohydrates to sugar. They slow down the absorption of carbohydrates so as to control appetite and reducing cravings. Thus, when chia seeds are eaten, the slow conversion of carbohydrates to sugar may actually give your body consistent energy streams, as opposed to a spike that is drastic, which will crash quickly. This will eventually build endurance and stamina due to the steady releasing of the glucose into the bloodstream.
  • Chia seeds promote hydration due to its hydrophilic properties. With Chia seeds, you can retain moisture and regulate the absorption of nutrients and fluids hence maintain electrolyte balance.
  • Chia seeds are good sources of all the essential amino acids. Protein from the chia seeds is easily absorbed, resulting in rapid growth, development, and regeneration of the tissue and body cells. Thus, this easily absorbed protein in chia makes it ideal for adolescents, children, pregnant and lactating women as well as the athletes.chia2
  1. What do Chia Seeds taste like?
  2. Chia seeds don’t have a distinct flavor. The flavor is slightly malty and a bit nutty, however, the flavor is so mild that its crunchiness matters more than the taste.
  3. What is the Difference between Black and White Chia Seeds?
  4. The two types of chia seeds have negligible nutritional differences, they essentially have the same contents of proteins, Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, fiber and other nutrients. However, the dark chia seeds have high levels of antioxidants as compared to the white chia seeds, just like any other dark cored vegetable and fruits.

In some cases, you might find brown seeds. The brown seeds are either immature chia seeds or weed seeds and they impact a strong flavor to the chia seeds. Avoid any brown chia seeds, as they are essentially low in protein and omega content, signifying a poor quality chia.


  1. How do you take Chia Seeds? Chia seeds can be taken and consumed directly and they necessarily do not need to be ground before consumption. Most people find it appealing mixing them with foods like broths, salads, juices, yogurts, cereals etc. However, chia can be mixed with (either whole or ground), with flour and used in baking. Chia can even be used as a nutty topping in ice-creams. Chia’s hydrophilic structure holds water, so whenever it is mixed with drinks, sauces, dressings, salads, jellies, salads ,puddings, yogurt, soups, dips etc. it displaces fat and calories without necessarily diluting or compromising the flavor of the said food.
  2. Are Chia Seeds Gluten & Cholesterol Free? Absolutely yes! Chia gives you a balance of the Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids without any cholesterol since they are plant based, unlike other sources such as fish oils. Unlike other types of grains, Chia seeds are gluten-free with its high content of naturally occurring anti-oxidants keeping the oils against rancidity.
  3. How much chia seeds a day should you take? Actually, there isn’t a definitive answer for this, since there is ongoing research concerning the Total Recommended Intake of Chia seeds. However, two tablespoons (20 grams) twice in a day, is the commonly recommended dosage by various health practitioners all over the country.
  4. How many calories are in a tablespoon of chia seeds? A tablespoon of Chia seeds weighing almost 13 grams, has a total of 69 calories. Nearly 53% of the total calories are derived from its fat content, with the other 35 % and 12% of the total carbohydrate and protein content respectively.
  5. What happens if I eat more than the recommended amount in a day? Eating more than the daily recommended amount of chia can seriously hurt your stomach. Chia seeds absorb up to more than ten times their weight in water, hence if you eat too much, it might absorb more liquid from your body. However, we don’t intend to scare you off, since chia seeds are very healthy, just that you need to follow the instruction well from your health practitioner.
  6. Q .Are there side effects from Chia Seeds?
  • Chia possesses a choking risk especially if they are not soaked in adequate amount of water. This increased risk is due to the fact that chia seeds swell and absorb up to more than ten times their weight in water especially when seeds are exposed to water. Chia seeds can swell up and become clogged up in the throat.
  • Since Chia seeds are loaded with Omega 3 fatty acids, Chia seeds act as natural blood thinners leading to bleeding and thinning out of blood, thus preventing clotting of blood.
  • Since they are high in protein content, Chia seeds may trigger an allergic reaction in persons who do not consume protein products.
  • Their fiber-rich content and spongy like quality can lead to some gastrointestinal issues such as:
  • Constipation and Diarrhea especially if they are not used to soluble fibers
  • Bloating and gases: since most of Chia’s fibers are soluble, your body’s breaking process of the seeds can cause too many gases, resulting in cases of bloating.
  • Abdominal Cramping: Slow moving fiber can result in cramping in some people because of the slow digestion caused by the fiber in Chia.

Because of their possible side effects, any person with gastrointestinal issues should consult a doctor before consuming chia or incorporating Chia seeds into their diets.







Lassi is an Indian yoghurt, which has richly unique taste due to its great match for spicy ingredients and foods.


2 tablespoon of maca powder

1 cup of chopped and seeded watermelon

½ cup purified water or even plain unsweetened almond milk

2 mangoes, peeled, pitted and chopped

1 cup of plain yogurt

1 tablespoon or honey

Pinch of ground cumin, cayenne or cardamom

Pinch of sea salt (optional)


Blend all the ingredients on high until smooth.

Pour into glasses and serve

History of Cacao


Cacao powder is sourced from the seeds of the Cacao fruit that grows on the cacao tree, a plant native to the tropical regions of Central America, southern America, and West Africa.  The Cacao fruit tree, also known as Theobroma cacao is an evergreen tree that produces a ripening yellow to orange fruit called Cacao pod which measures 18 cm long and 9 cm wide.

The Cacao fruit pod is made up of a hard nutshell that encloses the nutritious cacao seeds embedded in a white pulp. To produce the Cacao powder, the thin outer lining of the Cacao seed is first removed then separately roasted and milled to produce whitish chocolate liquor called Cacao butter. The remaining inner part of the seed is cold-pressed at low temperature to produce a dark powder that is jam-packed with nutritious supplements. The powder is Cacao powder.

Theobroma cacao trees are grown worldwide with a host of countries along the equator and within the Cacao belt cultivating the crop. The top world producers of Cacao are Cote d’Ivoire, Indonesia, and Ghana. Other countries that grow Cacao are Brazil, Madagascar, USA, Philippines, and Sri Lanka.

The cacao has been used by ancient cultures throughout centuries as a health supplement. For instance, the Mayans and the Aztecs communities used cacao to make a ritual beverage that was shared during the important occasions such as the marriage ceremonies and religious gatherings.


What makes cacao so special?

Most researchers focus on Cacao’s powerful content of flavonoids phytochemicals. It has a much higher content than tea and wine, two foods mostly touted for their high flavonoid content. Cacao is also a rich source of various nutrients that synergistically work with phytochemicals such as flavonoids.

Cacao is more than just a phytochemical powerhouse, it’s also a potent source of healthy fat, fiber and, minerals such as iron, magnesium, and copper.

Nutritional composition of Cacao powder according to USDA.

Calories – 120

Calories from fat – 23

Total fat – 2.5g (4% DV)

Saturated fat – 1.5g (7% DV)

Sodium – 20mg (1% DV)

Total Carbohydrates – 19.0g (6% DV)

Dietary fiber – 7.0g (28% DV)

Protein – 5g

Calcium – 4% DV

Iron – 16% DV



Fat: The Misunderstood Nutrient Present in Cacao

Fat sure can be so confusing. Remember when all the health recommendations advise on low-fat diet intake? Or even the nonfat diet trends? Saturated fats are not recommended at all due to their link with increased levels of LDL. However, not all the saturated fatty acids raise the levels of cholesterol. Stearic acid, the main predominant saturated fat present in cacao, is an exception! Current researchers prove that it is neutral on the LDL cholesterol and in some cases, it may lower it.

What is the difference between Cacao and Cocoa?

At first impression, you may think that Cacao and Cocoa are similar as they are extracted from the same tree and the same fruit, but you got it wrong because both products are two different things.

Cocoa is made by heating the cacao seeds at high temperatures and in the process enzymes responsible for nutrition benefits are reduced and thus the overall nutritional value of end product is lowered. On the other hand, the Cacao is formed through a cold-pressing process at low temperatures resulting in an end product with high nutritional composition.


Scientifically Proven Health Benefits of Cacao Powder.

Cacao powder is an excellent source of nutrients and it contains a high amount of antioxidants, huge concentrations polyphenolic compounds, high levels of magnesium and high amount of fibers. Additionally, the cacao seeds are considered  ‘ superfood ‘ due to the dense composition of essential nutrients and scientifically proven health benefits.  Some of the health benefits of cacao powder have been proven while others are still under research.

We are going to give you an in-depth breakdown of scientifically proven health benefits of Cacao powder. Sit back and relax;

  • Cacao powder as an antioxidant.

Antioxidants are compounds that help to revitalize the natural healing ability of our bodies by fighting off the damaging effects of oxidative stress. Organic raw cacao is an excellent source of antioxidants. Nutritionists say that the antioxidant concentration in cacao is 40X that of Blueberries.

Comparison of the antioxidant levels of Cacao powder and other superfoods.

  • It has 4x the antioxidants of Goji berries.
  • It has 80x the antioxidants of green tea.
  • It has 40x antioxidants of blueberries.

According to data by US Department of Agriculture, a 100g serving of raw Cocoa powder has an ORAC value is 95, 500μ mol TE while the same serving of 100g Blueberries has an ORAC value of 2,400 μ mol TE. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) measures the ability of our body to absorb free radicals that we get exposed to.  These radicals include the pollutants and cigarette smoke. The high amount of ORAC means a higher amount of the antioxidants and thus a high chance of cancer prevention caused by free radicals.

Raw cacao powder also contains the highest amount of Flavanols and Polyphenols antioxidant. Raw cocoa powder contains 30.1 mg of Flavanols per 1g, 3X more than any other superfood. Flavanols have numerous health benefits that which include improving the arteries elasticity and boosting the blood flow.

44713242 - chocolate bars and a wooden bowl of cacao powder. selective focus

  • Cacao for cardiovascular diseases.

The flavonoids in cacao have antioxidant properties which protect the cells and lipids involved in atherosclerosis development from oxidative damages and inflammations. The flavonoids promote the production of nitric oxide, which has a significant effect on vasodilation and vasoconstriction.

Cacao powder plays a significant role in reducing the inflammation caused by adhesions molecules. Adhesions molecules are proteins that cause the attachment of white blood cells and other substance to walls of heart arteries resulting atherosclerotic plaques that block the arteries and can result in a sudden rupture or heart attack.

According to a 2013 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Cacao helps to increase the “good” HDL cholesterol levels and lowers the “bad” LDL cholesterol levels. High concentrations of LDL cholesterols levels are responsible for most of the heart diseases. Flavanols in cacao have a significant effect on the functions of the endothelium as it reduces oxidative stress as well as increase g production of nitric oxide. Good endothelial functioning widens the blood vessels thus reducing the occurrence of hypertension. A review study done in 2012 on twenty clinical trials on the relationship between cacao and blood pressure showed that there was a significant reduction in blood pressure in the participants who consumed cacao in comparison to those who didn’t consume cacao. Therefore, Cacao lowers blood pressure and risks of hypertension.

Furthermore, Cocoa contains more than 700 compounds and Polyphenols that altogether prevent the hardening of arteries. Cocoa prevents blood thickening by thinning the blood hence reducing the blood clot in veins and arteries. Thus eating raw cocoa is as beneficial as taking aspirin daily.  The lowering of blood pressure and the effects on lipids of plain dark chocolates represents a real and cost-effective strategy for prevention of the cardiovascular diseases in persons with metabolic syndrome. However, chocolate needs to be dark and have at least 60 percent cocoa, or formulated and enriched with polyphenols.

  • Cocoa as an Antidepressant

Cacao creates euphoria and enhances moods. It contains four neurotransmitters chemicals; serotonin, tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylethylamine. These neurotransmitters help in promoting well-being, Cozy feelings and even elevate depression. Furthermore, the phenylethylamine neurochemical in Cacao has been found to create aphrodisiac effects and contentment feelings. The phenylethylamine or PEA triggers pleasurable opium-like neurochemicals that are often released during sexual activity. It is this reason that has made Chocolate a popular gift on Valentine’s Day.

According to a research published on the international scientific journal, Nutritional Neuroscience by French ETAP-Applied Ethology, two doses were tested behavioral animals and after two weeks the antidepressant-like effects were observed on the animals’ new behaviors as compared to the previous behavior before the test. The research concluded that “cacao is a promising alternative for the antidepressant agents.”


  • Cacao for skin care.

Majority of people find a good look at the beauty of the skin. Cacao helps to keep the skin healthy, natural and smooth. The high amount of antioxidants in the skin protects the body from free radicals such as UV light by preventing their penetration to skin tissues. Raw Cacao contains a high amount of vitamin C with One serving (28g) of the Cacao supplying our bodies with 21% of RDA of Vitamin C. The Vitamin C helps protect the skin and keep it healthy.

The omega 6 fatty acid in the cacao helps in cellular healing of the skin by increasing the rate of new skin regeneration. Cacao has also super absorbent properties that act as a sunscreen and prevent the Penetration of UV light to the skin. According to a research published in Journal of Nutrition by the Heinrich-Heine University in Düsseldorf women between 18-65 years were recruited and given dry Cacao powder mixed with 100 grams of water daily and after 6 weeks of cocoa consumption, the women experienced 15 percent less skin reddening from UV light. The ability of the Cacao to increase the blood flow by reducing the constriction of arteries helps to keep the skin healthy. Like any other tissue in the body, a healthy skin requires good blood flow.

  • Cacao for weight loss.

If you dream of shedding off the extra weight, then you should try the Cacao powder. Cacao contains MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitors that are commonly found in the weight loss products. The MAO inhibitors work to suppress appetite thus reducing the overfeeding. Cacao contains about 7.0g of dietary fibers in a 28 grams serving. This high amount of the fibers contributes to about 28 % of our Daily Value (DV). Fibers increase the production of bodies’ digestive enzymes thus improving the digestion process. Additionally, when fibers dissolve in water, they become bulk and this helps you feel full for long reducing over-eating.

A 2011 study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, researchers investigated 3 types of Cacao extracts on 3 types of enzymes (phospholipase, alpha-amylase and pancreatic lipase,) that contribute to fat metabolism. The investigation found out that a Cacao extract can inhibit enzymes in vitro hence contributing to weight loss.


  • Cacao for muscle growth and strength.

According to a research published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Cocoa has been found to possess a molecule called (-)-epicatechin. The molecule has been found to exhibit some similar properties as  Myostatin produced by the muscles. Myostatin is myokine that acts to suppress the muscle growth thus reducing the excess development of organs. When the Myostatin is suppressed, the growth of muscle increases. When the (-)-epicatechin molecule in cacao is ingested into the body, the production of Follistatin hormone is stimulated. This Follistatin hormone is a myokine hormone that promotes muscle growth by indirectly hindering myostatin signaling.

  • Type 2 Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, and Cacao’s Antioxidants

A surprising and interesting research on cacao is its effects on diabetes. Diets rich in flavanols reverse the vascular dysfunctions in diabetes while highlighting the therapeutic potentials in any cardiovascular diseases. The benefit of cacao in the treatment and prevention of diabetes has been well established over the years. A number of factors explain the positive effects of cacao on diabetes. For instance like hypertension, diabetes is related to endothelium functioning. Hyperglycemia, a diabetes trademark causes damaging to the endothelial wall.

The flavonols in cacao increase production of nitric oxide, thus improving vasodilation and vasoconstriction. When the blood flows well the endothelium is less susceptible to diabetes damages. Additionally, the epicatechin, a type of flavonol, improve the sensitivity of the insulin and reduces the resistance of insulin, oxidative stress and inflammation in the fat and muscle cells.

Having gone through the numerous Health benefits of Cacao powder, it will be prudent you incorporate the raw cacao powder into your diet as you will get numerous nutrients in this one ‘ superfood ‘. Also, remember to avoid the cocoa powder as most important nutrients have been destroyed during the heating process. The raw unprocessed cacao powder is the best choice you should go for if you want to get the health benefits.